A Controladoria utilizando a lógica Fuzzy no auxílio à empresa para definição das prioridades do planejamento estratégico

Quarta-feira, 28 de Setembro de 2011

O setor de turismo, no atual cenário brasileiro, altera-se constantemente em razão das políticas econômicas, demanda crescente, incremento do tamanho e complexidade das empresas que se voltam para o atendimento tanto das pessoas físicas, como das pessoas jurídicas. Além disso, um fator que preocupa o setor é a venda direta de serviços de turismo pela Internet, que ainda não está consolidada, mas que com o passar do tempo, pode tornar-se uma ameaça para o setor.

Em função das mudanças ambientais constantes, do aumento da competitividade, da globalização e das ameaças ao setor, torna-se essencial que as empresas de turismo desenvolvam sistemas ou instrumentos que produzam informações confiáveis. Informações estas necessárias tanto ao planejamento estratégico, vital a todas as organizações, quanto à controladoria na busca da monitoração do ambiente e verificação as mudanças que podem afetar o desempenho da empresa.

Niño e Gouvêa (2004) apresentam dados publicados no Congresso Brasileiro de Turismo de 2002, relatando que as agências de viagens no Brasil movimentam US$ 10 bilhões anuais com serviços de vendas de passagens aéreas, hospedagem, transporte terrestre e outros serviços, empregando mais de 35 mil pessoas em 7 mil agências distribuídas no país.

As agências de viagens, na medida em que exercem a função de intermediadoras entre os produtos turísticos e os usuários, necessitam construir um planejamento estratégico flexível utilizando informações do ambiente externo e interno fornecidas pela análise SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities e threats), buscando uma tomada de decisão e a implementação de ações eficazes que a levem a superar as ameaças impostas pelo mercado e também a superar os seus concorrentes visando a manutenção efetiva de suas atividades.

Diversas ferramentas podem ser utilizadas no auxílio ao processo de gestão das empresas, com o objetivo de adequar as estratégias organizacionais ao seu mercado de atuação. Uma dessas ferramentas são os sistemas desenvolvidos com os atributos da lógica fuzzy. Rodrigues e Santos (2004, p.2) expõem que a lógica fuzzy migrou dos conceitos nascidos na engenharia para os campos das ciências sociais e administração, porém, assinalam que “existem poucas experiências estudadas com relação à utilização da lógica fuzzy como instrumento de análises e formulação de teorias em administração”. Estes autores complementam dizendo que, especialmente, no Brasil existem poucos estudos teóricos e empíricos de aplicação dessa lógica para os problemas enfrentados pela administração.

Nesse contexto, este artigo propõe-se a apresentar a importância da utilização pela controladoria de um instrumento, no caso um sistema desenvolvido a partir dos pressupostos da lógica fuzzy, destinado a visualização e priorização dos objetivos e ações estratégicas de uma agência de turismo, auxiliando com informações precisas a estruturação do planejamento estratégico e também a tomada de decisão eficaz. 


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